Warning and reporting systems in CBRN incidents

All NATO countries apply the same procedures concerning CBRN Knowledge Management (KM). They are crucial for the rapid data collection, processing, and alerting of CBRN events. This is particularly important in the case of cross-border events, where the quick and efficient exchange of information enables adequate and effective measures to be taken to minimize losses. Although it is permissible to introduce national solutions, full interoperability is required at the international level.

Requirements in this regard are specified in NATO documents: ATP-45[i] – for manual techniques and AEP-45[ii] for information systems. The EU Sense project concerns two main CBRN Defense aspects: Detection, Identification and Monitoring (DIM) and CBRN KM. They both form the basis of Hazard Management (HM), which enables adequate actions to be taken in the field of Physical Protection (PP), Medical Countermeasures (MEDCM), and Casualty Care.

For instance, in Poland, all activities in this area are under control of the National Warning and Reporting System (NWRS), consisting of military (leading element) and civilian elements. According to the Regulation of the Council of Ministers of January 7, 2013[iii], observation, measurement, analysis, forecasting, and notification of contamination on the territory of the country must operate in a manner ensuring uniform functioning and mutual interoperability. This can be achieved through[iv]:

1) the same methodologies and procedures for observation and measurement of contamination; 

2) the same formats of reports and information on contamination; 

3) identical procedures for transmitting reports and information on contamination; 

4) a uniform scheme for the circulation and exchange of information on contamination.

All the above-mentioned requirements are compliant with NATO doctrinal documents. Additionally, IT systems have to meet the requirements specified in the AEP-45 document, and the reporting system must be formatted in accordance with the requirements of ADatP-3 (Allied Data Publication 3)4. Maintaining these standards enables efficient and trouble-free information exchange as well as its processing and analysis with NATO information systems. It must be emphasized that national solutions in the field of IT systems are allowed; however, they must fully comply with the above-mentioned requirements. In case of Poland, there is the Beam IT System (in Polish: System Informatyczny Promień), while in NATO there is the CBRN-Analysis. They both are used for calculation hazard areas and contaminated areas. A comparative analysis of both programs has been carried out in the article of Młynarczyk, Maciejewski, and Szerszeń[v], while the manual for using the Beam IT System is presented in the book of Gawlik-Kobylińska and Maciejewski[vi].

 [i] Allied Tactical Publication (ATP), Reporting Nuclear Detonations, Biological and Chemical Attacks, and Predicting and Warning of Associated Hazards and Hazard Areas.

[ii] Allied Engineering Publication (AEP), Programmers manual for Reporting Nuclear Detonations, Biological and Chemical Attacks, and Predicting and Warning of Associated Hazards and Hazard Areas.

[iii] Regulation of the Council of Ministers of 7 January 2013 on contamination detection and notification systems and the competence of authorities in these matters (Journal of Laws of 2013, item 96).

[iv] Systematic, APP-11 and ADatP-3What is APP-11 (NATO Message Catalogue) and ADatP-3 (Allied Data Publication 3)? And what is the difference between the two? Available at: https://systematic.com/defence/capabilities/c2/interoperability/app-11-and-adatp-3/ (Accessed: 12.22.2020).

[v] Młynarczyk M., Maciejewski P., and Szerszeń M., CBRN Analysis and SI Promień – Comparison of the Functionality of the Software for the Assessment of Contamination, BiTP, 40 (4)4, 2015, pp. 133-138.

[vi] Gawlik-Kobylińska, M. and Maciejewski, P. CBRN information management with the use of information tools, [Zarządzanie informacjami CBRN z wykorzystaniem narzędzi informacyjnych (SI promień 3.0 ORAZ PGO 2014)], War Studies University, Warsaw, 2017.