Chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial materials detected with the EU-SENSE AI-based recon device

The EU-SENSE chemical reconnaissance device, which is based on AI, has to identify and detect selected chemical substances from the group of chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). CWAs include: Tabun (GA), Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), Cyclosarin (GF), VX, Sulphur mustard (HD) and Lewisite 1 (L). Regarding ITCs, these are:  ammonia (NH3), chlorine (Cl2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S)[1]. Here is a short characteristics of the substances.


Sarin (GB) – a clear, colourless liquid, tasteless and odourless in its pure form. It is a volatile liquid.

Soman (GD) – a clear, colourless liquid, tasteless liquid, with a faint odour in its pure form. If it is impured, it has a yellow-brow colour and has a camphorous odour.

Cyclosarin (GF) – clear, colourless liquid, with a sweet, musty smell which can be compared to peaches. It is flammable and evaporates much slower that sarin

Tabun (GA) – a clear, colorless, and tasteless liquid with a faint fruity odour in case of impurities. When impured, it can have a brown appearance.

The agents belong to G-series nerve agents – the ones which were all first synthesised in Germany. 

VX, short for “venomous agent X”, is a toxic synthetic chemical compound in the organophosphorus class, specifically, a thiophosphonate. It acts on the circulatory and nervous systems. The VX is considered to be one of the most dangerous compound used in chemical warfare. If it enters the body through the respiratory tract, it is about ten times more poisonous than sarin.

Sulphur mustard (HD) – can be a vapor (the gaseous form of a liquid), an oily-textured liquid, or a solid; can be released into the air as a vapor, released into water. Exposure to the substance usually is not fatal.

Lewisite 1 (L), an organoarsenic compound, acts as a blister agent and lung irritant. In its pure form it is colorless and odorless. Impure lewisite is a yellow, brown, violet-black, green, or amber oily liquid with a distinctive odour, which is similar to geraniums.


Ammonia (NH3) – can be fatal within a few breaths. Ammonia is corrosive to the skin, eyes and lungs.

Chlorine (Cl2) – as a poison gas, pulmonary irritant. 

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) – severe irritation of the nose and throat. At high concentrations it can cause life-threatening accumulation of fluid in the lungs.

Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) – a blood agent, a colorless gas or liquid. It has a bitter almond odour.

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas is colorless, with an odour of rotten eggs. It is poisonous, corrosive, and flammable.

[1] Sellevåg, S. R. (2018). D2.2 user requirements. Retrieved from